Why Every Biopharma Lab Should Have a 3D Printer (and a Laser Cutter Too)

This article first appeared in the Timmerman Report.

If there’s something most drug development people can agree upon today it’s that the industry needs more valuable new products. Too many drugs seem incremental, and me-too drugs, while providing nuance, flexibility and value within a given drug class, are not by definition innovative, unless your definition of innovative is “like that, but in red.” And that’s why I’d like to propose something that would be simple, cheap and yet also have the potential to unlock creativity on a broad scale.

The biopharma industry should dive into the maker movement and buy up a bunch of 3D printers. Laser cutters too.

For those unfamiliar, a consumer-grade 3D printer is simply a device that, using one of several methods, extrudes plastic in a controlled way to build a three dimensional object. The plastic is cheap (it’s the same stuff LEGOs are made of) and the resulting items can be impressively complex. Look here to get an idea of the kinds of things people make.

Neat, huh?

When I first started learning about 3D printers, the first consumer models were just coming out. They have gone from novelty to ubiquitous in just a few years. They’re at hobby stores and even those strange stores you only ever see in airports. You know, the ones that sell stylized toys for businesspeople who’ve realized at the last minute they forgot to buy the loved ones a gift. But don’t underestimate 3D printers as cheap commodity tools. There may be an advantage in getting them into your lab.

But I’m getting ahead of myself. Why would you want one?

Let’s break up reasons into the practical, the aspirational and the big picture.

On the practical level—have you noticed just how many things in the lab are flimsy pieces of plastic? Test tube holders and racks. Spacers. Gel combs. Which leads to another question: Have you noticed how  a gel comb from Fisher Scientific can cost $77? With a 3D printer and some basic CAD software (there are many cheap and free programs) you could create a comb of whatever dimensions you’d like for a few dollars of plastic and a few hours printing time. Also, there are several online libraries (here’s one. Here’s another) where you can just search for patterns, without having to design items yourself. Like any kind of code, once a pattern is written, it’s there forever to be used and modified, creating exponential levels of creativity and a long tail market for ideas.

And that’s the second reason: aspiration. Using a 3D printer gives people an opportunity to tinker, to design, to grow. It’s been shown for a while that employee engagement is a key factor in increasing the probability of business success. For some workers (I freely admit, not all), the chance to design one’s own tools in the lab could lead to greater engagement in problems and experiments, and the opportunity to think of different ways to approach experiments. Tapping into that creativity, especially among technicians who do the majority of lab work, could be powerful. While the US leads the world in the leeway and freedom it allows technicians, I’ve known many people who work at that level whose talents weren’t fully utilized because there weren’t enough outlets for their thinking.

Last, I don’t know if you’ve noticed but there have been some big picture issues lately with sustainability in the industry. While we’ve got more tools, more smart people, and more money in the industry than ever before, the rate of new drug approvals isn’t keeping pace. And with the new Tweeter-in-chief, it’s unlikely price increases will be able to keep the industry afloat, despite what some commentators say. That means companies need to start thinking outside of the box to come up with more new products. Several striking papers have come out over the past few years about using 3D printing to create various kinds of medical devices such as prosthetics, and even tissues. The 3D printing community has largely been driven by architects and engineers and designers. Biopharma and biomedical researchers ought to be able to figure out the business opportunities.

And I haven’t even gotten to laser cutters, which provide a whole additional way to create new designs and constructs (full disclosure: I know several people at GlowForge, a laser-cutter startup in Seattle) by etching and cutting a wide variety of materials at the micron scale. The potential for combining 3D printers and laser cutters to create innovative microfluidic devices, for example, seems huge.

So here’s my advice: most 3D printers are probably below your purchasing authority. Get one, sneak it in, hide it in your office or maybe on a low shelf near the old copies of Nature that your boss will never throw out, and tell anyone who asks that it’s a broken microwave. And then, when no one’s looking…create!

 

How Distributed R&D Could Spark Entrepreneurship in Biopharma

This piece originally appeared in the Timmerman Report.

Remember the patent cliff and the general lack of new and innovative medicines in the industry pipeline? That was the big story of the past decade in biopharma. It caused a lot of searching for the next best way to organize R&D to improve productivity. One doesn’t hear that quite as often today. There are more innovative drugs both recently approved and moving forward through the pipelines of several biopharma.

The conversation these days has shifted toward drug pricing, and how the public is going to pay for some of these new, exciting drugs (the answer, in some cases, is maybe it can’t).

I don’t think the industry out of the woods yet. One of the main reasons drug prices have become such an issue is because even though there are new, innovative drugs, there aren’t enough of them. At the same time many of the drugs being approved are incrementally better but nevertheless being priced at a premium. And good reporting has made the public more aware of how many of our existing drugs are rising in price on a yearly basis. Especially in a time of little inflation, prices of most goods have not been going up at nearly the rate of pharmaceuticals.

Biopharma sits in a tough place. Analyses suggest the cost of developing a new drug has generally been doubling every nine years, which may be a by-product of some combination of the complexity of biology, our inability to predict which drugs will work, and the “better than the Beatles” problem. The question then is how to overcome these issues and increase the efficiency of developing new, innovative drugs. Without some kind of change, the industry is looking at a very difficult future in which price hikes run headlong into the wall of payers who finally say enough. Then what? Continue reading

Should Basic Lab Experiments Be Blinded to Chip Away at the Reproducibility Problem?

An earlier version of this piece appeared on the Timmerman Report.

Note added 23Feb2016: Also realized that I was highly influenced by Regina Nuzzo’s piece on biases in scientific research (and solutions) in Nature, which has been nicely translated to comic form here.

Some people believe biology is facing a “Reproducibility Crisis.” Reports out of industry and academia have pointed to difficulty in replicating published experiments, and scholars of science have even suggested it may be expected that a majority of published studies might not be true. Even if you don’t think the lack of study replication has risen to the crisis point, what is clear is that lots of experiments and analyses in the literature are hard or sometimes impossible to repeat. I tend to take the view that in general people try their best and that biology is just inherently messy, with lots of variables we can’t control for because we don’t even know they exist. Or, we perform experiments that have been so carefully calibrated for a specific environment that they’re successful only in that time and place, and sometimes even just with that set of hands. Not to mention, on top of that, possible holes in how we train scientists, external pressures to publish or perish, and ever-changing technology.

Still, to keep biomedical research pushing ahead, we need to think about how to bring greater experimental consistency and rigor to the scientific enterprise. A number of people have made thoughtful proposals. Some have called for a clearer and much more rewarding pathway for reporting negative results. Others have created replication consortia to attempt confirmation of key experiments in an orderly and efficient way. I’m impressed by the folks at Retraction Watch and PubPeer who, respectively, call attention to retracted work, and provide a forum for commenting on published work. That encourages rigorous, continual review of the published literature. The idea that publication doesn’t immunize research from further scrutiny appeals to me. Still others have called for teaching scientists how to use statistics with greater skill and appropriateness and nuance. To paraphrase Inigo Montoya in The Princess Bride, “You keep using a p-value cutoff of 0.05. I do not think it means what you think it means.”

To these ideas, I’d like to throw out another thought rooted in behavioral economics and our growing understanding of cognitive biases. Would it help basic research take a lesson from clinical trials and introduce blinding in our experiments? Continue reading